designation as an “irrevocable” beneficiary. Second, he failed to
apply the two-step analysis to the juristic reason assessment
that has been mandated by the Supreme Court of Canada in
Garland, at paras. 44-45; and in Kerr, at para. 43-45.
The irrevocable beneficiary designation
 Mr. Moore designated his second partner, Ms. Sweet, as
the irrevocable beneficiary under the policy. Ms. Moore’s designation as beneficiary, on the other hand, was revocable. The
change of beneficiary form was properly executed and filed with
the insurer pursuant to s. 191(1) of the Insurance Act.
 There is a significant difference between the status of a
revocable and an irrevocable beneficiary, in my view. The former
may be altered or revoked by the insured at any time; the latter
may not, except with the consent of the named irrevocable beneficiary. Part V of the Insurance Act has within it a specific
regime governing the manner in which a person may be designated as an “irrevocable” beneficiary — a statutory framework
for the benefit of the insured, the insurer and beneficiaries. The
designation must be done either in the life insurance policy
itself1 or by way of a declaration.2 It must be filed with the
insurer. And the effect of attempting to designate someone as an
irrevocable beneficiary without complying with the provisions of
the Insurance Act is that the designation is revocable.
 This is clear from the relevant provisions of the Insurance
Act. Section 190 stipulates that:
190(1) Subject to subsection (4)3, an insured may in a contract or by a
declaration designate . . . a beneficiary as one to whom or for whose benefit
insurance money is to be payable;
(2) Subject to section 191, the insured may from time to time alter or
revoke the designation by a declaration.
 Section 191 provides that:
191(1) An insured may in a contract, or by a declaration . . . filed with the
insurer at its head or principal office in Canada during the lifetime of the
person whose life is insured, designate a beneficiary irrevocably, and in that
event the insured, while the beneficiary is living, may not alter or revoke
1 “Contract”, as defined in s. 171(1) of the Insurance Act, means a contract
of life insurance.
2 A “declaration”, as defined in s. 171(1), means an instrument signed by the
insured, containing certain specific information and in which the insured
“designates, or alters or revokes the designation of . . . a beneficiary”.
3 This subsection is not relevant to the issues on the appeal.