never disputed the allegations of what occurred and the nature
of what the plaintiffs experienced at Oak Ridge. What has been
disputed is whether the programs developed for the Social Therapy Unit at Oak Ridge were beneficial mental health care and
reputable scientific experiments in psychology based on credible
and ethical scientific research or whether the programs were
torture and unethical experimentation on humans.
2. Oak Ridge and the defendants
 Oak Ridge, which opened in 1933, was an institution designated under the Mental Hospitals Act, infra. It was a physically separate unit of the Ontario Hospital, Penetanguishene. It
was a Schedule 1 psychiatric facility designated under the
Mental Health Act, infra. Oak Ridge was administered by the Ministry of Health, a ministry of the Crown. Between 1966 and 1983,
Oak Ridge was the only facility in Ontario for the custody and
treatment of dangerous or unmanageable mentally ill patients.
Typically, the patients of Oak Ridge had extensive criminal
records that included violent crimes including abduction, pedo-philia, rape, assault and murder. The patients suffered from
a variety of psychiatric illnesses including personality disorders,
schizophrenia, sexual deviation and organic brain disorders.
 Dr. Barry Boyd, now deceased, was the superintendent or
officer in charge of Oak Ridge from 1960-1974, and its medical
director from 1974 to 1978. He established the Social Therapy
Unit at Oak Ridge. Dr. Boyd hired the defendants, Drs. Barker
and Maier, who were employees of the Crown.
 Oak Ridge included the Social Therapy Unit, or STU
(wards E, F, G and H). The defendants plead that the Social
Therapy Unit was a therapeutic community based on principles
that were recognized and accepted in psychiatry and related disciplines at the time. They plead that the intensive therapy programs in the Social Therapy Unit were predicated on the
concepts that patients needed to undergo self-discovery and to
take responsibility for their own behaviour. The programs
involved a shift away from a custodial model where patients
were never expected to be released into society and were treated
with sedatives, tranquilizers, electroshock and psychosurgery.
 Dr. Barker was licensed to practice medicine by the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and he had a specialty in psychiatry. From 1966 and 1972, he was assistant superintendent
and clinical director of the Social Therapy Unit. Between 1972
and 1978, he worked part-time at Oak Ridge conducting court-ordered assessments. Between 1978 and 1979, he resumed
administering the Social Therapy Unit.