[ 53] Several cases have recognized the inculcation mission of
the public system. In Canadian Civil Liberties Assn. v. Ontario
(Minister of Education) (1990), 71 O.R. (2d) 341,  O.J. No.
104 (C.A.), at p. 380 O.R., this court expressed agreement with
the conclusions of the report of the Mackay Committee regard-
ing both the appropriateness of teaching civic virtues in the
classroom and the imperative not to undermine families in the
process [at para. 130]:
[T]here are ways of encouraging the development of young people in public
school of high standards of character, ethical ideals, and an understanding
of moral values, without trespassing on the personal religious beliefs which
they have learned at home or in their separate places of worship.
[ 54] As distinguished from religious education, this court stated
[at para. 130], “the inculcation of proper moral standards in
elementary school children” is a legitimate objective of government through education. This conclusion was endorsed by the
Supreme Court in L. (S.), at para. 20. See, also, Chamberlain, at
paras. 64-67; LeBel J., at paras. 211-12, and Gonthier J. in dissent but not on this point, at para. 184; L. (S.), per Deschamps
J., at para. 40, LeBel J., at para. 54; and see generally Loyola.
[ 55] Dr. Bernard Shapiro asserted in the Report of the Com-
mission on Private Schools in Ontario (Toronto: Commission on
Private Schools in Ontario, 1985), at p. 39, that public schools
are necessary in order to “ensure that, in a pluralistic and multi-
cultural society, schools can contribute to the strengthening of
the social fabric by providing a common acculturation experience
for children”. He added, at p. 50, that
it would also be difficult to underestimate the importance of a common, non-
commercial acculturation experience in the socialization of the young. Indeed,
the more fragmented the society and diverse the groups striving for their
“place”, the greater the need for schools to seek a common unifying core.
[ 56] This development of a common culture, which includes
civic virtues, is the dominant argument for specifically public
schools, as the cases set out.
( 2) Section 169.1 of the Education Act is an iteration in
[ 57] Section 169.1 of the Education Act, first enacted in 2012,
is part of the inculcation effort. It now provides:
169.1( 1) Every board shall,
(a) promote student achievement and well-being;
(a. 1) promote a positive school climate that is inclusive and accepting
of all pupils, including pupils of any race, ancestry, place of