they were admitted to administrative segregation. However,
Dr. Chaimowitz is a psychiatrist duly licensed in Canada and
certified by the American Boards of Psychiatry and Neurology.
 The respondent tenders Dr. Blanchette on the nature of
the mental health services provided to inmates. In her evidence, Dr. Blanchette makes claims related to the effectiveness
of treatment: “Even though substance abuse is a mental health
disorder, the cognitive-behavioural intervention techniques
which are taught and learned in correctional programs, including self-management (also known as relapse prevention) have
been shown to be highly effective in reducing substance abuse
and associated criminal offending.” This evidence is tendered
despite Dr. Blanchette’s lack of frontline treatment of offenders. If evidence of the effects of administrative segregation
can only be effectively adduced by an individual with current
experience treating inmates in administrative segregation,
it behoves the respondent to lead evidence on the effectiveness
of the treatment of inmates through an individual with current
experience treating such inmates. The respondent leads no
 Dr. Chaimowitz’ opinion about the nature, causes and
exacerbation of the mental health problems of his patients who
had been administratively segregated while in prison is an opinion well within his expertise.
 I also accept Dr. Chaimowitz evidence that prolonged
administrative segregation poses a serious risk of negative psychological effects.
 Rule 43 of the Mandela Rules prohibits prolonged solitary confinement and Rule 44 provides solitary confinement for
a period of more than 15 days is considered prolonged. I accept
the respondent’s view that the Mandela Rules are not binding
but they do represent an international consensus which Canada
supported. As indicated, the respondent acknowledges that Canada helped draft these Rules.
 The Organization of American States, of which Canada
is a member, took the position in 2013 that member states
must adopt concrete measures to eliminate prolonged or indefinite isolation.
 The Corrections and Conditional Release Act and Correctional Service of Canada practice recognize the danger of
prolonged segregation. Specifically, s. 31(2) provides that an
inmate should be released from administrative segregation at
the earliest appropriate time. Section 31(3) provides that the
institutional head must be satisfied that there is no reasonable
alternative to administrative segregation before ordering an