was selling cocaine in a particular area of Toronto and provided
Jay’s phone number.
 Based on the source information, P.C. Fitkin put together
a person of interest (“POI”) package identifying Mr. Williams
as Jay. It is not clear how the link between Mr. Williams and Jay
was made. The POI package included Mr. Williams’ photograph,
date of birth, physical description and home address.
It specified that Mr. Williams used the alias “Jay” and that he had
dealt drugs on several occasions at 389 Church Street. It included
a criminal record check that indicated that Mr. Williams had
a prior conviction for possession of a narcotic and was out on bail
for drug offences. Under the heading “Source Information”, the
POI package indicated that Mr. Williams was “a cocaine dealer in
the area of 389 Church Street and Yonge & Dundas” and provided
the phone number he used.
 On January 31, 2011, P.C. Fitkin contacted Detective Con-
stable Brooke Hewson of the TPS Drug Squad and asked her to
investigate by having an undercover officer “cold call” the phone
number. In an e-mail sent on January 31, 2011, with the subject
line “Drug Dealer ‘JAY’”, P.C. Fitkin wrote the following:
[Redacted sentence]. I have some info as well that i was hoping you could try
a cold call on. I haven’t been able to get ahold of my source to get a drop
name yet but will continue to try.
Please find attached a POI package that I put together about the drug dealer.
P.S. He was done by Margetson’s team in 2009.
 D.C. Hewson was familiar with Mr. Williams. She had been
involved in his arrest in 2009 for trafficking cocaine, when
Mr. Williams was a young person under the Youth Criminal Jus-
tice Act, S.C. 2002, c. 1. That case had ended in 2010 when
Mr. Williams pleaded guilty to simple possession of cocaine.
 After receiving P.C. Fitkin’s e-mail, D.C. Hewson ran the
phone number provided through TPS databases, but the search
derived no information. She made no inquiries of P.C. Fitkin
about his source’s reliability or about how the name “Jay” had
been connected to Mr. Williams.
 On February 11, 2011, the TPS Drug Squad held a briefing
on the case and determined that D.C. Tony Canepa would make
the cold call to the phone number. D.C. Canepa, a 39-year veteran
of the TPS at the time of trial, was provided some basic details
regarding the target, namely, his name (“Jay”), telephone number