Such an artifact need not be connected to the upload of the
pornographic files some seven to eight months earlier. Any login
into that SkyDrive account would create artifacts, and, in fact,
use of [information omitted]@ hotmail.com at any time whatsoever,
for any purpose whatsoever, would create artifacts that could
connect the computer to the child pornography. Again, such artifacts would be highly relevant, even if the computer was not the
same one that had been used to upload the child pornography
months earlier. The issuing justice could reasonably infer the
person who uploaded the child pornography would use their
e-mail account to access SkyDrive for other purposes as well.
 While Cst. MacDonald was forthright that quantifying
the chances of finding artifacts would be speculative, he could
not be dissuaded from his view there were reasonable grounds
to search the computer. The issuing justice could have accepted
Cst. MacDonald’s expert opinion, evident in the following
Q. Okay. So when you’re talking about the artifacts because you — I mean
you’re saying you had grounds to believe that there should be artifacts
that have some evidentiary value on computers, right?
A. Yes, there is.
 As I understand it, Cst. MacDonald’s testimony was not
that the prospect of finding artifacts was speculative, but that
quantifying the chances of finding artifacts would require him to
speculate. The trial judge erred by concluding that the fact Cst.
MacDonald could not express the odds of finding artifacts some
seven to eight months later meant he was engaging in speculation
and lacked reasonable grounds that artifacts would be found. She
failed to recognize the assessment of reasonable grounds is qualitative. All the circumstances have to be considered, the passage of
time being only one.
 Considering all the circumstances, the issuing justice could
have accorded the passage of time less weight, and attached
greater weight to the expert opinion of Cst. MacDonald, in this
highly technical field in which common sense intuitions about the
lapse of time are less helpful.
( v) The reliability of the NCMEC Report
 Given the trial judge’s several errors, it was the SCAJ’s
task to determine if the warrant could have issued.
 The SCAJ correctly observed that the information in
a Cyber Tipline Report has hallmarks of reliability. The Microsoft
username, e-mail account, files uploaded, times of upload and IP
address of the computer that uploaded the files all come from