O.R. (3d) 231,  O.J. No. 19 (S.C.J.), para. 51; McGee v. London
Life Insurance Co.,  O.J. No. 1760, 70 C.C.P.B. 249 (S.C.J.),
para. 18. As Cullity J. put it in Caponi v. Canada Life Assurance
Co.,  O.J. No. 114, 72 C.P.C. (6th) 331 (S.C.J.), para. 47:
Numerous cases involving challenges to employers’ administration of pension
and other employee benefits plans have been certified in the past. Typically, this
has been held to be appropriate because of the existence of common questions
of interpretation of plan documents, and common formulae and methodologies
that determine and govern the rights of all, or some group of, participants in the
plan and constitute most of the issues in dispute between the parties.
 The requirement in s. 5(1)(b) of the CPA that there be an
identifiable class of two or more persons is satisfied here, since the
Bell Canada pensioners and their dependents are all subject to the
same Plan. The class is defined by counsel for the plaintiff as:
All persons, wherever resident, who are or were members under the Bell
Canada Pension Plan, or otherwise entitled to benefits under the Plan, and
who were entitled to receive indexed pension payments pursuant to section
8.7 of the Plan as of January 1, 2017, together with the spouses, estates,
heirs, beneficiaries, and representatives of any of the above who has died.
 The s. 5(1)(c) requirement of common issues is also a straightforward one here. The issues are broken down into two common
questions for each of the causes of action, plus two questions going to
 The breach of contract questions are:
(1) Did the defendants owe a contractual obligation to provide
pension indexation under the Plan? If so, what amount of
pension indexation ought to have been applied and provided
in respect of the year 2017?
(2) Did the defendants breach their contractual obligations?
 These questions are capable of common resolution. There
is only one pension plan that applies to all class members.
Whether the Plan gives rise to a contractual obligation to all
members, and how that Plan is to be interpreted under the circumstances, are issues that must be determined for every class
member. The determination of the amount of pension indexation
for 2017 applies on an equal basis to all class members.
 The breach of trust questions are:
(3) Does Bell Canada, as administrator of the Plan, owe a duty
as a trustee to the class?
(4) If so, did Bell Canada breach its duty as a trustee?
 The breach of fiduciary duty questions are: